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We all want that “finding myself through travel” experience in college, but going to school abroad seems like an impossible, expensive dream. Surprisingly, it’s actually cheaper in some cases, thanks to rising tuition costs in the States. But don’t hop on a plane just yet. There are a number of variables to consider.


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How Small Actions Help You Take Control of Your Finances

Last year, I wanted to write a book. It seemed like an impossible task. But I figured, “if I can write a long blog post, I can surely write one chapter,” so I took it one chapter at a time. Before I knew it, I finished the whole thing. Small actions made all the difference and our finances work the same way.


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iOS 9 Actually Makes the iPad Usable for Work

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NFL Hall Of Famer And Former MNF Broadcaster Frank Gifford Dies At 84

NFL Hall Of Famer And Former MNF Broadcaster Frank Gifford Dies At 84

NBC News reports that former NFL running back, Monday Night Football announcer, and football Hall of Famer Frank Gifford passed away this morning at the age of 84. Here is the statement that his family released:

It is with the deepest sadness that we announce the sudden passing of our beloved husband, father and friend, Frank Gifford. Frank died suddenly this beautiful Sunday morning of natural causes at his Connecticut home. We rejoice in the extraordinary life he was privileged to live, and we feel grateful and blessed to have been loved by such an amazing human being. We ask that our privacy be respected at this difficult time and we thank you for your prayers.

After an All-American career at USC, Gifford played for the New York Giants for 12 seasons, and made eight Pro Bowls. He led the Giants to an NFL Championship in 1956, being named the league’s MVP along the way.

Gifford was one of the last great multi-position players, playing running back, wide receiver, or defensive back at various points in his career, and sometimes all three in the same game. In 1953 he averaged almost 50 minutes per game playing both sides of the ball, an incredible feat. He missed a season-and-a-half of football after a vicious hit from Chuck Bednarik caused a concussion and fractured vertebrae in 1960, but returned for three seasons and made one final Pro Bowl appearance.

To most people under the age of 50, however, Gifford is better known as one-third of the iconic Monday Night Football broadcasting trio that included Howard Cosell and Don Meredith. Gifford took over play-by-play duties from Keith Jackson in 1971, Monday Night Football’s second season, and kept at it for 14 more years, helping it become the sporting culture institution that it still somewhat remains today. His broadcasting career was basically ended in 1997, when The Globe tabloid filmed Gifford cheating on his wife, television host Kathie Lee Gifford, with flight attendant Suzen Johnson.

Gifford is survived by his wife Kathie Lee, as well as their two children and three from a previous marriage.

Update (3:41 p.m.): Via Mike Garafolo, here are statements from the Giants ownership:

John Mara: “Frank Gifford was the ultimate Giant. He was the face of our franchise for so many years. More importantly, he was a treasured member of our family. My father loved him like a son and was proud to act as his presenter for the Pro Football Hall of Fame, a favor Frank returned years later by presenting my father in Canton. For my siblings and me, Frank was like a revered older brother whom we looked up to and admired. We loved him and will miss him terribly.”

Steve Tisch: “Not only was Frank a member of the Giants family from the time he left USC, and will be forever, but because Frank, my father (Bob) and Pete Rozelle were so close in the ‘60s, I felt like he was a member of my family. I always loved seeing Frank on our sideline before our games. He had the handshake of a 25-year old, and he looked you right in the eye with his big blue eyes. He was such a strong person in every way. He will be missed and will always be remembered as a Giants’ Giant.”

Update (4:15 p.m.): Here is Jim Nantz reacting to Gifford’s death live while calling a World Golf Championships tournament:

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Here Is The Transcript From Tom Brady’s Appeal Hearing [UPDATING]

Here Is The Transcript From Tom Brady's Appeal Hearing [UPDATING]

The NFLPA has filed their suit against the NFL over Tom Brady’s four-game suspension in New York federal court today, after their gambit to have the suit heard in Minnesota was rejected. Judge Richard Berman declined to allow the parties to confidentially submit supporting materials under seal, and as a result we have over 200 exhibits and attachments to comb through.

Perhaps the most important of these documents is the full transcript from the NFL’s June 23 hearing of Brady’s appeal. It’s a huge document, but instead of having to rely on leaked portions of it or the interpretations of various parties—like we’ve had to do for the past week—we can instead just read the entire thing.

In the opening statement, NFLPA lawyer Jeffrey Kessler states that Goodell based his suspension almost entirely on the Wells Report’s conclusion that Brady was “generally aware” of the cheating by Patriots employees, and that this is bullshit:

It is our position that there is no policy, no precedent, no notice that has ever been given to any player in the NFL that they could be subject to any type of discipline, whether it’s conduct detrimental discipline or whether it is under the policy that has been invoked here for being generally aware of something.

It would be the equivalent if a player knew or was generally aware that another player was taking steroids, okay, and had nothing to do with it, but had some general awareness of that. The only person who was punished under the Steroid Policy is the person who was taking the steroids. You don’t get punished for being generally aware that somebody else is liable.

Kessler also makes the point that it wouldn’t make sense for Brady to be involved in the inflation of footballs, as what he cares about is how they feel in his hand, not how they are inflated:

And, in fact, he will testify and explain that his concern about footballs has to do with the touch and feel of the football. You will remember in 2006, there was a movement byall the quarterbacks to prepare their footballs. None of that had to do with ball pressure, and he will explain that.

And, in fact, it will be clear in the evidence it had to do with the same way a baseball player works in his glove to a right feel to soften the leather to make it feel right for that quarterback. He’s never been particularly concerned about pressure at all except in one game, and there are — things happen that create appearances that are not correct, which was the Jets game in 2014.

Kessler closes out his statement by attacking the Integrity of the Game policy under which Brady was suspended, arguing that it clearly does not apply to players:

The second thing was the policy that was invoked, which is the integrity of the game policy as you know, is directed, and this is in evidence — is directed only at owners, head coaches, general managers, the club. It’s never given to the player. And, in fact, it’s clear on its face who its given to.

You probably know, Commissioner, every year, the players are given certain policies. For example, they are given the Personal Conduct Policy. They are given team rules, okay. They even sign acknowledgements as to which policies they get. One policy they’ve never been given is this integrity of the game policy which talks about the balls.

I’ll be updating this post as I go through the transcript, which you can see in full below.

Update (6:29 p.m.): Glad that Brady’s lawyer made sure this was entered for the record:

Q. And how many Super Bowls have you led the Patriots to during your career?

A. Four.

Q. Now, how many did you go to?

A. Six.

Q. I know you are focused on how many did you win?

A. Four.

Q. Okay. Has anybody won anymore?

A. Same, Montana.

Update (6:39 p.m.): After stating that the inflation level of the balls never comes up in his discussions about their preparations, Brady unequivocally denies that he has ever asked anybody to change their inflation levels after he has approved of them, and furthermore, that doing so would mess with the balls in a negative manner:

Q. Okay. Now, have you ever specifically, so again, very specific question, have you ever told anyone on the Patriots after you’ve given to them that they should change the inflation level of the footballs after you approved them or do anything about the inflation level after you approved them?

A. No.

Q. Now, what would be your reaction if Mr. Jastremski or anyone else in the Patriots was doing something to the footballs after you’ve approved it? How would you feel about that?

A. I would disapprove of that.

Q. Why? Why would it matter to you?

A. Because I go through, like I said, this extensive process to pick out the balls for the game, and that’s the ball ultimately that I want on the field that I play with. So once I pick the ball out, then I don’t want anything other than that ball to be the one that I am on the field playing with.

Update (6:56 p.m.): Kessler questions Brady for a long time about a 2014 game against the Jets, before which the usual ball preparation procedures were changed. The game was expected to be rainy, so instead of using balls newly conditioned with leather conditioner, the Patriots used old balls from training camp. While the leather on the balls felt great, they were rock hard, and Brady yelled at equipment assistant John Jastremski during the game about them. Afterward, he found out why they were so hard:

Q. Sometime after the Jets game, what did Mr. Jastremski tell you he learned about the ball?

A. That the balls were, you know, inflated to, you know, much higher than what they were agreed upon before the game.

Q. Do you recall what number he used?

A. 16.

Q. 16 psi? Okay. And how did you react to that? First of all, before he mentioned that, at that time, did you have any prior knowledge as to what the exact psi levels were set for in this NFL rule from 1920?

A. Zero.

Q. No knowledge at all until then?

A. Zero.

Afterwards, Brady asked Patriots equipment manager Dave Schoenfeld what it said in the rule book about how the balls should be inflated, and learned that it specified between 12.5 and 13.5 pounds per square inch. Brady says he directed Schoenfeld to inform the referees of the rules regarding inflation to ensure the footballs were never that hard again, and that was the last time he spoke to anybody about inflation:

Q. Other than that comment, have you ever, after that time, told Mr. Jastremski or anybody else in the Patriots anything else about the pressure of footballs? Was there any comments at all that you make to them —

A. No.

Q. — until this happened?

A. No.

Update (7:08 p.m.): Brady explains that, because there was supposed to be inclement weather for the AFC Championship game, he and Jastremski once again changed their normal ball preparation procedure. Wary of what happened during the Jets game, Brady asked Jastremski to prepare 24 news balls, but without the use of leather conditioner. After he last touched the balls a few hours before the game in the equipment room, Brady says he didn’t notice anything other than properly prepared footballs on the field:

Q. They felt like they normally feel after you select them?

A. Yes.

Q. After halftime, did the balls feel any different to you than they did in the first half of the game?

A. No.

Q. Now, did you know during the game that the referees had put more air into the balls to get them to 13 psi at the halftime? Were you aware of that during the game?

A. No.

Q. So could you even tell the difference between whatever the inflation was in the first half versus the second half in terms of your feel? Did you have any sense of that during the game?

A. No.

Update (7:19 p.m.): Brady first learned about Ballghazi on the radio:

Q. That’s sufficient. Now what I want to do is focus on the events after the game is over. When did you first become aware after the game now that someone was making allegations that the Patriots had done something to deflate the balls during the game? How did you learn about that?

A. On the radio show the following morning.

Q. The following morning?

A. Yeah.

Update (7:29 p.m.): Brady says that he didn’t know locker room attendant Jim McNally:

Q. Okay. Now, by the way, there has been some discussion from the Wells report about Mr. McNally and whether you knew him or not, okay. Prior to all these allegations, did you know the name Jim McNally?

A. No.

Q. Now, did you know who it was, even, who met with referees in their locker room when they are testing the balls? Did you even know which person physically on the Patriots was the person who went in there and did that?

A. No.

Update (7:35 p.m.): Brady says that he did not turn over his emails and texts on advice of his lawyers, but if his lawyers had advised him to do so he would have. He also states that there were no emails or texts that he was worried about turning over:

Q. Now, let me turn now very briefly to the subject of electronic communications. Now, did there come a time after February 28th, so now we are well past the Super Bowl when you learned from your lawyers or your agents that there had been some request made for e-mails and texts that you might have?

A. Yes.

Q. Okay. Now, we know that those were — nothing was turned over or the request was not responded to. How did you make the decision about that? What were you relying upon? How did you decide that?

A. Well, I was relying on their advice as my lawyers and what they basically said, There’s been a request, but we don’t think it’s proper for you to turn your phone over, so you don’t need to do that.

Q. If they had told you that you should turn over anything, would you have done so?

A. Absolutely.

Q. Okay. At the time that the request was made, okay, you know what e-mails you did and what texts you did. Were there any e-mails or texts that you were worried about which showed you knew about deflating or anything like that? Was there anything you were trying to hide or conceal in your mind?

A. Absolutely not.

Q. Okay. Were there any such texts where you wrote to somebody talking about deflating footballs or other things in connection with the AFC Championship Game?

A. No.

Update (7:53 p.m.): Ahh, the infamous destroyed cell phone. I particularly like where they don’t even bother to dance around the fact that Brady is very, very rich, and $600 for a new iPhone means nothing to him:

Q. Now, Mr. Brady, let me ask you about your patterns of phones, okay, because not everybody has this pattern, okay. First of all, do you have access to basically cell phones for free?

A. Yes.

Q. So it is essentially costless to you to get another cell phone?

A. Yes.

Q. Okay. Now, have you had a practice, and tell me when it began, how long ago, of destroying or, I guess, asking somebody to destroy or get rid of your cell phones periodically?

A. I think for as long as I have had a cell phone.

Roger Goodell pipes up to get clarification:

COMMISSIONER GOODELL: Just, Jeff, can I ask a question? How often do you normally dispose of your phone? When you say “get rid of,” does it run out of time?

THE WITNESS: Well, if it — a new version may come out of a particular phone, if I break the phone, I’ve stepped on the screen a few times, it just fell out of my bag at my locker, I’m not seeing it, I stepped on it, I think three or four times, sometimes the touch panel breaks.

COMMISSIONER GOODELL: But it’s not a very regular practice, irrespective of you breaking it, to just get rid of it or when a new version comes out? I’m trying to understand that, or is it every month you change it just for security reasons?

THE WITNESS: No, I don’t do that.

Brady stated that when he gets a new phone he doesn’t change his number, though he did so after the Wells Report came out because “a lot of people started guessing what my phone number was.”

Update (8:14 p.m.): It is now the NFL’s turn to question Brady, and they begin by aggressively asking about his cell phone use. A forensic expert was hired to examine two of Brady’s phones for any evidence of text messages referring to ball inflation. But one of the phones was active only from March 6, 2015 through April 8, 2015, while the other was active from either March 23, 2015 or May 23, 2015 (it’s unclear why this date is unknown) through November 5, 2014. Crucially, this means that Brady did not provide the phone that he was using before and after the AFC Championship game:

Q. And did you use a cell phone to make calls and send and receive text messages during this gap period of November 6, 2014, to March 5, 2015?

A. Yes.

Q. And that gap period of November 6, 2014 to March 5, 2015, includes the day of the AFC Championship Game on January 18, 2015, correct?

A. Yes.

Brady was able to provide text message record that show he sent or received about 9,900 text messages during this time, a not-unreasonable 83 a day. But what about the actual physical phone? Brady has no idea:

So my question is: Do you know why a phone that was active during this period was not provided to your forensic expert for review?

A. We didn’t have it.

Q. Do you know where that phone is now?

A. No idea.

Q. Are you certain that you disposed of that 1 phone?

A. I gave it to my assistant.

Q. Do you know when you provided it to your assistant?

A. I have no idea.

Q. And when you provided it to your assistant, did you provide it to your assistant for the purpose of it being disposed of?

A. Yes.

Update (8:43 p.m.): Brady and the NFL’s lawyers go back and forth for a long time about his preferred inflation level. Brady says that, after the October 2014 Jets game, he just wanted all balls to be inflated to 12.5 PSI, which is at the bottom of the 12.5 to 13.5 PSI acceptable range. The NFL’s lawyers try multiple times to get Brady to admit that he prefers his footballs to be at the lower end of the range, while Brady maintains that the only thing he knew is that the 16 PSI the balls were inflated to during the Jets game was way too high, and that 12.5 PSI is essentially arbitrary:

And just to, I think the irony of everything is I don’t even squeeze a football. I think that’s something that’s really important to know is I grip the ball as loosely as possible. I don’t even squeeze the ball and I think that’s why it’s impossible for me to probably tell the difference between what 12.5 and 12.7 or 12.9 and 13 because I’m just gripping it like a golf club.

I’ve tried to explain it. It’s like a golf club. You don’t squeeze the golf club. You handle it very gently. And that’s the same way I hold a football.

Update (8:55 p.m.): Another contentious back-and-forth between Brady and the NFL’s lawyer, this time about his phone conversations with Jastremski. On January 19, the day after the AFC Championship game they had four phone calls totaling 25 minutes, on January 20 they had two phone calls totaling almost 10 minutes, and on January 21 they had two phone calls totaling almost 21 minutes. Brady is asked about each of those calls, as well as a meeting he had with Jastremski in the stadium’s quarterback room, and each time says he cannot recall specifically what they discussed. Generally he says he was worried about getting the footballs prepared for the Super Bowl—during the Super Bowl a new ball use used for practically every play, so the Patriots needed to prepare 100 instead of the normal 12-24—and about how Jastremski was holding up in the wake of the unfolding scandal.

This is a representative exchange:

Q. And there’s a text in the middle of the page from John Jastremski to you at 7:24 in the morning. It says, “Call me when you get a second.” Do you see that?

A. Yes.

Q. And the report says underneath, “Brady called Jastremski within the hour and they spoke for six minutes and 21 seconds.” And this is the morning of January 20th. Do you recall what you discussed with John Jastremski during that six-minute-and-21-second call?

A. I don’t remember exactly what we talked about.

Update (9:20 p.m.): After a lunch break, the NFLPA questions one of their expert witnesses Edward Snyder, Dean of the Yale School of Management. His role was to evaluate the findings of Exponent, the company used by Ted Wells’s team for scientific and statistical analysis of the deflation of the footballs. Snyder gets straight to the point, and identifies a number of errors he says Exponent made:

Q. Okay. So let’s go, let’s start with your slide deck. The first slide shows your three key findings. And if you could just sort of walk the Commissioner through each of the three key findings that you made and that we will elaborate on.

A. So first finding is that their analysis of the difference in differences, the analysis of the pressure drops and the difference in the average pressure drops is wrong because Exponent did not include timing and the effects of timing in that analysis.

Secondly, Exponent looked at the variation and the measurements between the Patriots’ balls and the Colts’ balls at halftime. They compared the variances. And despite conceding that there was no statistically significant difference between the two, they went ahead and drew conclusions, but those conclusions are improper.

And, last, and this goes to the issue of alternative assumptions, as well as error, if the logo gauge was used to measure the Patriots’ balls before the game, then given what the framework that Exponent provides us with scientifically, and if the analysis is done correctly, eight of the eleven Patriots’ balls are above the relevant scientific threshold.

Update (9:30 p.m.): Man, Snyder absolutely lays waste to the report Exponent prepared for the Wells Report. For instance, here he is explaining how quickly the PSI of a football changes when being brought into a warm room after spending a few hours out in the cold, and how Exponent didn’t even bother to account for timing in their report:

Q. So let’s go to our Slide 12. And what is this showing?

A. This takes the earlier Figure 22, and I will refer to that again. It takes the top schedule, what Exponent calls their transient analysis, that’s their scientific framework.

It says, okay, you bring in a Colts’ ball. It was pre-game at 13. It’s brought right into the locker room. It’s going to be 11.87. This is, like, so 2:40 is, like, in locker room terms, it’s minute zero. And then 12 minutes later, it’s warmed up and it’s roughly 1.1 psi greater in 12 minutes.

Q. The same ball?

A. The same ball.

Q. What did Exponent do in its difference in difference analysis to account for time?

A. Nothing.

Q. How do you know?

A. Absolutely nothing. If you look at their difference in difference equation in their appendix and you look at Table A3, where they report their results, they have explanatory variables for their difference in difference analysis and time is not an explanatory variable.

You can read the Exponent report forwards, backwards, upside down. You see time referred to again and again and again and again. However, you have to look at what they actually did, the statistical analysis that they actually did. They left time out of the analysis that they said was the most important.

Update (9:45 p.m.): One of the issues in the halftime measurement of the footballs’s PSI is that two different pressure gauges were used, and one of them consistently came back with readings .3 to .4 PSI higher than the other. The Exponent report used a “master gauge adjustment” to be able to use readings from both gauges, and found that there was funny business going on with eight of the 11 balls. But Exponent made, according to Snyder, “a very basic mistake.” They used the master gauge adjustment for the halftime PSI readings, but not the pre-game PSI readings. If they had done so, they would’ve had very different findings:

Q. Let’s go to the next slide. And were you able to correct for that inconsistency that you described in Exponent’s master gauge conversion?

A. Yes. Now, the effective starting value is not 12.5, it’s 12.17.

Q. How do you get the 12.17?

A. You apply the master gauge conversion consistently to both halftime measurements, as well as the starting value.

Q. Okay. And let’s go to the next slide. And what is the impact of making that correction on the results?

A. Now eight of the Patriots’ balls are above the critical threshold predicted by Exponent, three are below.

Update (9:56 p.m.): Things got testy when Snyder was being cross-examined by the NFL:

Q. And your criticism is that Exponent didn’t take into account timing appropriately, right?

A. When they tested — when they did their difference in difference analysis, you look at the equations. If I could refer you to the appendix.

Q. It would be better if you could answer my question.

MR. GREENSPAN: And I would ask you to just let him answer the question.

MR. LEVY: Knock it off.

Update (10:13 p.m.): The Snyder cross-examination by the NFL goes in circle after circle for page after page, with Snyder and the NFL’s lawyer unable to even agree on basic terms and interpretations of the Exponent report. Eventually, Snyder gets fed up and basically calls the people that prepared the Exponent report morons:

Q. It says, “It is unlikely to have occurred by chance and further study is warranted.” And timing was studied, right?

A. And why not include timing in the original model? They have a list of variables that they include in their original model, but they excluded timing. Isn’t that the key thing here?

Why go to a side analysis and say timing is sufficient to explain everything? Put it in your original model. Come on. And, yes, I’m a member of the Econometrics Society in the past. Any graduate student in statistics or econometrics would know this is wrong. This is a restriction. This is saying timing is unimportant despite reading the Exponent report. It’s timing all over the place.

Q. Well, I would move to strike if this were in real court, but I won’t move to strike. But I’m sure Exponent will not describe their other work as a side analysis and would describe their work quite differently than you are describing it. And I think we will have the opportunity to hear from them.

Update (10:24 p.m.): I realize that in the grand scheme of this 457-page hearing transcript this is small potatoes, but I can’t get over how contemptuous Ted Snyder is of Exponent and, increasingly, the NFL’s lawyer:

Q. It says “timing.” It says, “To account for any time effect in our statistical analysis, we incorporated an order effect into our statistical model to determine whether any portion of the observed ball-to-ball variation in pressure was explained by the order of measurements.”

A. Are you just asking me is that what it states?

Q. Well, is that what it states?

A. It is. That’s what they’ve stated.

Q. And that incorporated the concept of timing into their statistical model, didn’t it?

A. No. Here’s what this did.

Q. That’s fine. I will just leave it right there.

A. I would like to explain. It’s an important point. It’s not timing. It’s order of ball measurement. That’s the so-called explanatory variable. And the variable that they are trying to explain, the so-called dependent variable, is not the difference in average pressure drop.

It’s not the difference in difference analysis. It’s ball-to-ball variation, which we know is subject to so much measurement error that I’m not surprised it doesn’t explain that.

Update (10:53 p.m.): We’ve now moved onto the examination of Troy Vincent, the NFL’s EVP of Football Operations. He confirms that that he was first alerted to problems with the AFC Championship game footballs by Colts GM Ryan Grigson, during the second quarter:

Q. Okay. So let me ask you first, Mr. Vincent, how did you first learn that there was any issue or allegation about the footballs that the Patriots were using in the AFC Championship Game?

A. It was first brought to my knowledge approximately six or seven minutes remaining in the second half [sic] of the AFC Championship Game. There was a knock on the door by the General Manager from the Indianapolis Colts, Ryan Grigson. He proceeded in the room and he brought to myself, and Mike Kensil was actually sitting to my left, and said, “We are playing with a small ball.” That was my first knowledge of the situation.

Q. You had never heard anything about the Colts having made allegations before the game started prior to that time?

A. No, sir.

Update (11:03 p.m.): The NFLPA’s lawyer really lays bare how unscientific the NFL’s ball pressure measuring process is during his examination of Troy Vincent. He asks question after question about whether anybody considered things like which gauge to use, whether to measure the temperature, whether to record if the balls were wet or dry, and Vincent is forced to answer “no” to practically every question. Here’s a representative sample:

Q. And is it fair to say you did not tell anybody to record the temperature in the room at the halftime testing, correct?

A. No, sir.

Q. And nobody recorded the temperature in the room at the halftime testing, correct?

A. Not to my knowledge.

Q. Right. You didn’t tell anybody to record the exact time when different balls were tested at the halftime, correct?

A. No, sir.

Q. And to your knowledge, nobody recorded that?

A. Not to my knowledge.

Q. You didn’t tell anybody to record whether or not the balls were tested on the Colts before reinflating the Patriots’ balls or after? You didn’t instruct anybody to record that anywhere, correct?

A. No, sir.

Q. And to your knowledge, it was not recorded anywhere?

A. Not to my knowledge.

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Why I Left Scientology

Why I Left Scientology

I was a Scientologist for eight years. Although I identified as one I didn’t really understand what actually being a Scientologist fully entailed until after a couple of years of being heavily indoctrinated. The reality of Scientology is deceptively hidden and cleverly disguised. When I look at Scientology today, I have to forgive myself for not seeing through the manipulation sooner. I’ve spent the last 13 years keeping Scientology out of my life. It hasn’t been easy, but I’ve realized that the religion is built on a foundation of violence. I’m proud to add my voice to the many who, despite fear of retribution and humiliation, have come forward to tell of our experiences. This is my story.

The day I was taken to The Celebrity Centre in Los Angeles for the first time, I had no idea how much the visit would change and shape me into the person I am today. Or what I’d be like if the fates had something different in mind for me.

I bought a one-way ticket from Georgia to California when I was 19. My dream was to be an actor. Four months after arriving, I met the person who would introduce me to the organization around which my life would soon begin to revolve. Jason Lee, the actor best known for My Name is Earl, and I were introduced at an action sports trade show in San Diego where I was working as a model for an indie clothing label. Jason was at the height of his pro-skateboard success. We got married in 1995 after being together for one year.

Jason had been a Scientologist for about five years when we met. He was introduced through his ex-girlfriend, Marissa Ribisi, and her family. When I think back, I believe a part of me knew if I didn’t accept Scientology the marriage would be over before it even started. That may sound somewhat superficial and at that age, maybe it was. But in truth, regardless of how different I feel about Jason and Scientology today, I was very much in love with the guy and wanted our marriage to work. I did what I thought was right. But I made the mistake of immersing myself completely in his world. I did what so many other people who join Scientology do: I lost all sense of individual identity in the name of the cult.

What made becoming a Scientologist all too easy, especially in the beginning, were the famous and successful faces that surrounded and influenced me. It made it seem like maybe Scientology was the real cause behind all this success these young people were having. Jason’s friends became my friends. I was impressed with how educated in art they all were. I learned a lot through them, but at 20 years old, there was no one in my life who wasn’t a Scientologist.

I got a horrible feeling in my stomach that first day at the Celebrity Centre. Jason and I had spoken about Scientology many times. Our relationship was serious; we had just moved in together. Eventually, I started to feel like he was forcing Scientology on me, past the point where I didn’t want to go any further. He would never stop talking about it. It became a source of contention and I realized that unless I accepted Scientology the way he did and the way he wanted me to, we would most likely cease to know each another.

I didn’t want to go inside the Centre, but Jason was so excited for me. He had set up a tour of everything. A very nice Sea Org staff member showed us around, taking us to the different levels and departments and explaining how Scientology worked. Of course, Jason had been there before and it wasn’t lost on me that the tour was all for my benefit. It was unnerving to know that my reaction to what was happening could be a dealbreaker in our relationship. I think I was too young to even understand the impact this had on my decision making.

We walked over to a room where a couple of people were reading and waiting to be taken into “session,” as it was described to me. As we kept going, it occurred to me how unreal and expensive Scientology was to going to be. (I’m not exactly sure, but I know with all the auditing, books and courses I took, the cost of Scientology added up to more than $50,000. This includes the cost of my lifetime membership to the International Association Of Scientologists, which is thousands of dollars and a requirement that must be paid before any services can be started. This amount does not include the donations the church asked us for over the years.)

To me, Scientology seemed more of a surreal lifestyle for the privileged than a kind of belief system. Our tour guide showed us the auditing part of the grade chart, then the training part. She asked us, wouldn’t we like to become clear one day and was that something we could imagine ourselves doing? I remember saying I did, but that I would most likely only do the auditing side since it seemed impossible for me to finish both sides. I joked that I had no idea how I’d ever have time to do anything else.

She surprised me when she abruptly cut me off me mid-sentence in order to say that I would finish both sides, like every other Scientologist is required do. Her quick personality shift from accommodating to controlling shocked me. I didn’t expect to be belittled by our tour guide, given that it was my choice to do anything concerning Scientology—if I was going to do it at all. I wondered how she could see it any other way. But she didn’t back down from what she said. It made me feel stupid. And then she just moved on with the tour as if nothing had happened. I didn’t like it and I didn’t understand it. Worse, Jason seemed to not notice.

After I left Scientology I came to know this type of communication very well, if you can call it that—it’s too one-sided for it to be called an actual communication cycle because it’s more like being talked at. Hubbard created a complicated emotional tone scale and used it to teach Scientologists how to “deal with people.” This specific way of talking was called “speaking with tone 40 intent.” This was all learned in a very low-level course, all under the guise of having better communication skills. We practiced speaking this way with each other. Two of the training routines taught us how to deal with a person who was doing something wrong by basically ordering them around. In this routine you spoke to the person in a commanding way and you didn’t offer them a chance to reply. This was how people in the church talked to me after I left. I regrettably admit to speaking to people that way myself when I believed it was called for. It was also how Jenna Elfman and Gay Ribisi treated me when I became known as a “Suppressive Person.” More on that later.

Our tour of the Centre continued on. I’d run out of adjectives to describe how beautiful the building was. I hated sensing the need to over-emphasize exactly how much I liked everything, like I had to prove it. (This is something else I got used to doing while being a Scientologist.) I listened to the history of how the Centre used to be a hotel and all the renovations done to it, but I couldn’t help thinking that nothing seemed religious about Scientology. Most of what was presented to me was focused on the material side of life.

I was shown L. Ron Hubbard’s office, set up perfectly for when he comes back in another lifetime. The famous members of the religion were mentioned over and over again. In the Rose Garden, cans of Coke were on sale for $2 each alongside overpriced snacks. It was all very ostentatious. Most of the focus was on ways things appeared. It confusing to me that a church was called the Celebrity Centre. I didn’t like having class systems mixed into my religion. It just didn’t seem right.

A year or so later, at a party at the Centre, I discovered just how difficult it was for me to hide my critical feelings. Most people in the church will say it’s a person’s critical thoughts that get them in trouble with it. But when you leave, it’s those same critical judgments that end up freeing you. For me, being the emotional creature I was and still am, it was those thoughts I couldn’t let go of, even in the most intense days in my time as a Scientologist.

This was a Hollywood premier-type party, with red velvet ropes and a guard who’d lift them if you were a recognizable Scientology celebrity, worthy of the status of being separated from the crowd. It got under my skin that this was being done in the name of religion, but I wasn’t strong enough yet to voice my opinion about it. When my own friend’s mother couldn’t get in and I had to pull the guard aside as to not embarrass her, I asked myself what the hell was I doing there.

It’s hard to come to terms with the fact that I never related any of this to anyone around me, at least not until I left Scientology and it felt safe to do so. You’d never think that speaking your mind could get you in that much trouble, but if you knew what the average Scientologist’s perspective was on friendships you’d understand. It becomes a lonely world. It wasn’t hard to see how my story would end if and when I went that route. No one is really friends with each other in Scientology. I began to call my Scientologist friends “faux friends,” because who could be close to somebody when you know for a fact that they would betray your confidence in a heartbeat? In Scientology, your friend can become your worst enemy overnight.

The backstabbing and creative deceitfulness I experienced in Scientology were what wounded me the most. Faux friends have no problems betraying you. A few years ago I looked up my former best friend on Facebook. I had been gone from Scientology for almost a decade and hadn’t spoken to anyone from the group, so I was very surprised to see pictures of me on her page, and even more surprised to see that she and her friends were gleefully making fun of me in the photos. They wrote captions comparing me to Anna Nicole Smith, saying I was going to end up dead just like her. They said I was “a missing person” and asked if “anyone [had] seen me” (but not in the helpful sense).

It made me sick to see them making nothing out of another human being’s life. They took pride in knowing about my private struggles with addiction, which at that time in my life I’d never spoken about publicly and certainly never shared with them (I’d also successfully gone through rehab and had been in recovery for several years). When I discovered these Facebook postings, I had two small children at home who needed me very much and who I lived for. Seeing people that consider themselves the most ethical immortal beings on the planet take bets in public on how long I had to live was an ugly sight, to say the least. But to Scientologists, I am not human. I am a Suppressive Person, a one-dimensional, unthinking humanoid who has no rights. And in Scientology, the way they were treating me was the only way a Suppressive Person is to be treated.

A Suppressive Person is the worst thing you can be in Scientology. This label is reserved for anyone who is opposed to, speaks out about, or leaves the religion. Scientologists believe that such a person, like an ex-Scientologist who speaks out about their former beliefs and/or who doesn’t disconnect from one who has, will make everyone around them sick. They’ll ruin everyone’s lives with whom they come into contact and must never be socialized with again. According to the written doctrine of Scientology, Suppressive Persons must be destroyed if the religion is to continue saving the world. This is why it’s difficult to look at these nice and sweet celebrities and ever imagine they could be full of such rage and hate. But they’ve actually been hardwired, slowly and over a long period of time, to fanatically believe in this.

I remember when I tried telling one faux friend how the writings of L. Ron Hubbard felt too convoluted for me to absorb. About a sentence into my opinion, she cut me off. Before I knew it, she had totally whitewashed what I’d said. But it was like she thought she was doing me a favor by not letting me express myself. I found myself agreeing with her in the hope that I wouldn’t cause any more problems. Anything I said or even thought that was considered a deviation from the general Scientological (an actual word we used) teachings was seen by others as an error on my part—something that needed correction. Or it meant something was horribly wrong with me.

Shortly after I left Scientology, I ran into one of my former faux-friends, Jenna Elfman, at Fred Segal in L.A. She walked up to me and said “Hi” and stared in my face for a second in a semi-confrontational way. I was shocked for a second but said hello, how are you, thinking it was going to be a normal conversation. But rather than telling me how she was, she went on a rant about all the courses she was working on and finishing in Scientology to let me know that nothing other than religion mattered. She didn’t ask me how I was. She didn’t wish me well or ask me about my life. She wasn’t interested. I was just supposed to listen to her while she lectured me in that tone-40 type of voice and told me I needed to get back on “the bridge.” Then she walked off without saying goodbye. It was a very cold encounter. (Honestly, even when I was a Scientologist, I thought the Elfmans—Jenna and her husband, Bodhi, who married me and Jason—were cheesy people. They sent out a monthly newsletter in the mail to everyone they knew called “The Elfman Empire” listing all their Hollywood projects and Scientology work they were doing. It was funny.) Anyway, Jenna thought she was being a good Scientologist by talking to me that way. Of course, they’re trained to act like that.

When I first started Scientology, I figured I’d likely have to do something pretty bad in the religion’s eyes to earn the Suppressive Person label. Something horrible like killing someone or printing fake money, I don’t know, something truly criminal. I wouldn’t have ever dreamed that I would one day earn this distinction because I read a book (A Piece of Blue Sky, by former Scientologist Jon Atack, which forever changed my life) that opposed the church’s beliefs. Most people know the only view you’ll see of any Scientologist once they disconnect from you will be their backs. Before I was disconnected with him, I still got along with Jason as long as I agreed with his and the church’s demands. But when I revealed over the telephone to my talent manager, Gay Ribisi, that I’d read an anti-Scientology book, it started the chain of events that led to me being disconnected with everyone I had known.

Suddenly, my entire life got stolen out from under me. My entire support structure shattered. Nothing that I knew was ever the same. I lost Gay, Jason, and every friend and source of love I knew besides my family in Georgia, 3,000 miles away. I was completely on my own and not one of them cared. What I didn’t expect to happen was that Gay would get my agent at United Talent Agency to drop me. Or at least that’s what she told me in her disconnection letter I received two days after our phone call. So I had no way of even getting work. I was supposed to start over.

Gay’s disconnection letter consisted of one paragraph and ended with “Love always comma Gay.” But what it meant was: “Never speak to me again. You are now a big bad Suppressive Person.” I was being punished. I wish I would’ve kept the letter. I’d written many myself while I was Scientologist and was trained on how to compose one. They’re to be kept short and you’re to remain detached and emotionless. But the most important part is to be final, so the person on the other end knows they’ll never see you again. I burned it.

Jason’s disconnection letter was delivered to my mailbox the same day as Gay’s. It was also a paragraph, and it also ended in the same meaningless way and insinuated the same serious things. I actually questioned who wrote his letter because it mimicked Gay’s in every way. It practically said the same thing. It was silly that he had to write me a polite letter to tell me never to speak to him again. In my mind a more honest dialogue would have gone like this: “Yeah, Carmen, I know I knew you better than anyone else, especially Gay. And I guess I loved you for almost ten years but you’ve done the unforgivable deed of reading a book that my ass-backwards religion doesn’t like so I’m going to have to turn you into a more demonic version of yourself where you can never be redeemed or believed. Your pain is a lie. Just suffer in silence.” This would have at least been a more open conversation to have had with Jason. I might have respected him for at least telling the truth.

Anything Jason did after our marriage ended is truly none of my business. But his participation what happened to me and my family after our divorce is unforgivable. I always joke that for people to understand what ex-Scientologists go through, they’d have to take a class on it. One thing they would learn about is something called “Fair Game”—a practice Scientology uses to target its enemies. This is what happened to me after I divorced Jason and was disconnected from Scientology.

Scientology has a sophisticated intelligence agency known as the Office of Special Affairs, which is essentially a complex system dedicated to ruining the lives of those it sees as enemies in any way possible. Those who work for the OSA do not follow the law. I didn’t believe any of this was real until I left and started to research it in the attempt to figure out the strange things that were happening to me and my family—like how and why my former best friend suddenly knew about everything about my personal life, and why she felt compelled to involve herself in it.

There was more. Vicious rumors were being spread about things I had said only while in session, which I was made to believe were private. Some rumors I knew could only come from certain people, like Jason. I got followed all the time. People in public would loudly discuss a conversation I had just had in private, word for word. Similar things occurred on social media.

Scientologists have no boundaries and their cruelties exclude no one. From my experience, Fair Game’s main tool is mind games. They’re very good at it and they play with your emotions. I’ve found they skirt the law and use methods like electronic surveillance and cell phones to monitor a person’s every word and every move.

You’d think I’d get a divorce from a Scientologist and realize that Scientology was bunk. But brainwashing doesn’t go away like that, and especially that fast. I wish it did. I was interested in knowing the truth about Scientology but couldn’t get past the idea that in doing so, I would be reading something so horribly wrong that I’d explode or something. So I decided to read A Piece Of Blue Sky. As I began it, I had a gut reaction: This, finally, was the truth.

This set off a process that I like to call “The Unraveling.” My Unraveling still isn’t over. I don’t know if it ever will be and I love the fact that I’ve finally gotten to the point of accepting this. I write poetry, and a major theme I love is the sky. This is taken from two things. In Scientology they called praying “just talking to the sky.” I also got it from the book. In a sense, reading this book was my first layer of freedom, the time where I fought for my sky with my sun again, to belong to myself again. I’ll never forget the effect this book had on me, and continues to have on me. I will be forever thankful to Jon Atack.

No one imagines themselves as so fragile to ever let something as sinister as a cult take control of their minds. I didn’t think anyone would ever tell me how to think and when to think it. We all believe we’re above such things and only stupid people could fall for that.

But there are no choices in Scientology. There never were. It is all a ruse. In truth, after I left Scientology, I had to learn how to think for myself again, to speak for myself again. It’s very different from the language Scientology promotes in its advertisements: “think for yourself.”

But in the end, for me, irony does bring justice. I now live and work in Atlanta with my family. I’ve been in a long-term relationship since 2003 and we’re blessed with twins who are about to turn 11 years old. It’s a whole other subject with what my children have gone through at the hands of Scientology and how they understand it to be. We all watched Going Clear together and they’ve told me how glad they are to not be Scientologists. And that makes me happy.

I’m still acting. I’ve been surrounded by religion my entire life and I’ve recently thought about going back to school to learn more. It’s facinating for me to explore relationships people have with religion and the choices they make because of it, good and bad. It’s always been a dream of mine to travel and film a documentary on all different ways people incorporate their beliefs into their lives all over the world. And I one day hope to help and be of service to other survivors who have suffered through the experiences of predatory cults.

Carmen Llywelyn is an actor and photographer.

[Illustration by Jim Cooke]

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

If recent months have taught us anything, it’s that the Kardashians—a family whose daily comings and goings are documented more thoroughly than the Obamas’—are able to conceal secrets more securely than the most secret shadow branches of the C.I.A., until such time as TV ratings require their reveal. This week, the world learned that Kim Kardashian was pregnant. But when did Kim Kardashian learn that?

Every week, keen-eyed Kardashians scholar Mariah Smith uses paparazzi photos, gossip-blog coverage, the family’s own Instagram and Twitter accounts, and common sense, to investigate, and establish a detailed and accurate shooting schedule of Keeping Up With the Kardashians—laying bare the distorted timelines and manufactured plotline of America’s royal family. Welcome to Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors.

On Sunday Night’s episode of Keeping Up with the Kardashians, the A-plot was the Kardashian/Jenner kids wrapping up their Montana vacation; the B-plot was Kris Jenner following Kendall Jenner to Paris; the C-plot was Kim’s struggle to get pregnant; and the D-plot was everyone’s final night of happiness before realizing we could never slay like Caitlyn MF-ing Jenner.

In this recap we will refer to Caitlyn as Bruce, because this episode aired before she stunted on American civilization as we know it and officially slayed the game as Caitlyn. #LetsGo

Scene 2: Filmed on February 21, 2015

The Montana Crew is still in Montana. Kim is lounging in bed when Khloe comes in to apologize about their fight the night before. Khloe doesn’t apologize for a specific thing, but instead asks Kim to apologize for what she said. Confused, Kim chooses to apologize for saying Khloe has bad style, but doesn’t commit to the apology when she criticizes the sweats Khloe is wearing. The outfits and glam on Kim and Khloe are the same ones we will see later this episode when they leave Montana, so we know that this was filmed on February 21, 2015.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Scene 7: Filmed on February 20, 2015

Kim, Kourtney, and Jonathan play cards at their estate in Montana. Before getting down to a game of Gin, Kim recalls a Pictionary game she played with the entire Jackson family, “including Janet” when she was 15. She says she picked the word “angel” and she drew it so well that Jermaine and Janet immediately began jumping up and down and shouting out “angel,” winning them the point. Unfortunately for Kim, the other team saw the card and told her it was “angle,” not “angel.” Ever since then, Kim has had a “thing” about angel/angle. It’s not all sad though, since she was given the point out of pity. Silly, Jacksons!

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

The trio finally play a game of Gin, and talk about Scott’s anger issues/the almost car accident earlier that day (Episode 12, Scene 25). Kourtney says she spoke with Scott earlier, and that he feels horrible about getting so angry over the situation. Though, prior to that incident, Scott had been making a lot of progress with keeping his anger in check, Kourtney doesn’t seem too concerned with his abrupt back-slide into rage. Kim’s stroll down Name Drop Lane and Kourtney’s Gin win were filmed on February 20, 2015.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Scene 9: Filmed on January 24, 2015

Jetsetter, Kris Jenner, touches down in Paris! It’s Paris Fashion Week, so of course Kendall Jenner is there as well. The two head to lunch. Kris smiles, asks questions, and tries to engage with her child, while Kendall looks off, avoids eye contact, and answers with single syllables. Kendall and Kris’ lunch was filmed on January 24, 2014.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Scene 13: Filmed on January 24, 2015

Reeling from their crazy fun lunch, Kris Jenner and Kendall Jenner enjoy dinner in Paris. Kris compliments Kendall’s bangs in a recent Vogue spread, and Kendall huffs and puffs that contrary to what her text messages say, bangs are not her thing. Sensing Kendall’s agitation, Kris tries to steer the conversation away from Kendall’s non-existent bangs. In one of the saddest moments in KUWTK history, Kris asks budding supermodel, Kendall Jenner if she knows who Twiggy is. Kris, a woman who claims to have raised smart, able-minded, critical thinking, successful children, asks one of said children if she knows an icon within her field of work. Thankfully Kendall knows who Twiggy is, or, according to her hand motion, she knows the CliffsNotes version: eyelashes.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Like a moth drawn to an expensive flame, Kris just can’t let her kids be and they hate it. Kris tells Kendall that she’s excited for London Fashion Week, and this sets Kendall off. Kendall gets real emotional and tells her mom, “Let me miss you.” WOW. We need this etched out in a cursive font with a Lo-Fi Instagram filter, so we can re-post it with the tiny cough emoji to coyly grab the attention of our love interests. Kendall’s monologue about love, goodbyes, and the art of feelings was filmed on January 24, 2015, the same day she and Kris went to lunch in Scene 9.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Scene 14: Filmed on February 18, 2015

The Montana Crew is still in Montana, and they all listen in on a phone call between Kim and her psychic, John Edward. He’s a close friend, and one of Kim’s advisors, so she calls to ask about her chances of getting pregnant. He tells her that she can’t stress about conceiving, but instead needs to visualize walking with a child and North playing with a younger sibling. John also tells Kim to focus on energy, and know that when the energy is right for Kim and Kanye to be that child’s parents, it will happen. Also, astrologically, the time has to be right. Kim’s psychic phone call was filmed on February 18, 2015.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Scene 16: Filmed on February 21, 2015

The Montana Crew finally packs up and leaves Montana. Kim is in a rush to get out of the state because she has a very important doctor’s appointment scheduled to take place soon after they land in California. In the rush to get everyone out of the house and onto the plane, Khloe, Kylie, Kim and North leave ahead of the group.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Unfortunately, a truck passing them blows snow onto their SUV, which knocks the car onto black ice and sends it spinning into oncoming traffic. Thankfully for the future of KUWTKE, Khloe got control of the car and they skidded into a ditch and were safe. Everyone is shaken up, but Kim is far more emotional than her sisters. She calls Kanye and uses “I Statements” to tell him what happened in the accident and how it affected her. Kim says “our,” “we,” and “us” one time, and “North” zero times. Kim, we’re happy that you’re okay! Kim’s car accident was filmed on February 21, 2015.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Scene 20: Filmed on March 13, 2015

At Kourtney’s house, Kourtney, Khloe, and Scott talk about breastfeeding other people’s children. Kim arrives with a (then) new bleach blonde look. Kourtney asks the group if they heard about Bruce’s upcoming surgery. Khloe makes a “yes” noise, and no one else responds. We assume it’s because the group is tuckered out from filming for five months, as this appears to be the final day of production on the first half of Season 10 for Scott, Kourtney, and Khloe; it’s the latest we’ve been able to date a scene featuring the three of them all season. This chat was filmed on March 13, 2015.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Scene 21: Filmed on March 17, 2015

Kim visits her doctor, Dr. Rosen, to see how close she is to ovulating. She’s told that she’ll be ovulating in about 4 days, on a Saturday. Even though Kim is “over it” when it comes to stressing about getting pregnant, Dr. Rosen tells Kim to come back on Friday so that they can give her a trigger shot; 6 days after that, Kim can complete another round of IVF. Because Dr. Rosen is so thorough, we can confidently say that this filmed on March 17, 2015.

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

Keeping Up With the Kontinuity Errors: How Long Has Kim Been Pregnant?

This was the first Tuesday of March that Kim was in Los Angeles with blonde hair. The Friday following was March 20, 2015, meaning that Kim would have gotten her trigger shot then, and that embryos would have been implanted on March 26, 2015, 13 days before Kim told Khloe she was pregnant on April 9, 2015 in Armenia (we see footage of that reveal in the teaser for the second half of season 10, not yet aired). Assuming Kim conceived on March 26, 2015, this would make her around 16 weeks pregnant—which would mean she’s likely looking at a December delivery. Kongrats, Kim! We are really looking forward to this!

Well, Dolls, turn up that Vitamin C and think of me at night. These past 13 weeks have been a blast and I can’t wait to share some more Kontinuity Errors with you later this month. Stay tuned to this space for more KUWCaitlyn Jenner’s acquaintances re-caps/updates on KUWTKE! #LetMeMissYou

Images via E!

Mariah Smith is writer and comedic performer who keeps up with the Kardashians. For more Keeping Up With The Kontinuity Errors click here. You can follow her on twitter @mRiah.

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